In 1946 a new constitution was approved by westminster and promulgated in nigeria. This marked the beginning of a true federal system of government in nigeria. It was not unusual that the nationalism that became a political factor in nigeria during the interwar period derived both from an older political particularism and broad panafricanism rather than from any sense of a common nigerian nationality. Nigeria is one indivisible and indissoluble sovereign state to be known by the name of the federal republic of nigeria. Features of the republican constitution of 1963 nigerian. The lyttleton constitution was enacted in 1954 and it established the federal principle and paved the way for nigerias independence in 1960. The 1960 constitution has 154 sections and 11 chapters where the 1963 constitution has 159 sections 12 chapters. The approach adopted is historical, from the legislation process of 1861 of lagos colony to 1914 as the period of national formation. It came into effect on january 1, 1914 and has been amended a number of. Educational policy in nigeria from the colonial era to the. Constitution of the federal republic of nigeria pdf download.
It is trite that one of the sources of a constitution is other constitutions. This act may be cited as the ghana independence short title and act, 1957. The 1914 constitution, the 1922 constitution, the 1946 constitution, the 1951 constitution, the 1954 constitution and the 1960 constitution. The constitution of the federation of nigeria 1960 world statesmen. The 1954 constitution was important because of the following reasons.
This first set of constitutions was passed in the following years. Federalism, nigerian federal constitution and the practice. Explain the importance of the lyttleton constitution of. The outcome of the london conference of 1953 and that of lagos in 1954 formed the basis of the lytteton constitution which was named after the then secretary of state for the colonies mr. Nigeria and, subject to the provisions of section 4 of this constitution, if any other law. Constitution shall prevail, and that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. Gold coast constitution order in council, 1954, shall as from responsible. Under this constitution nigeria retained queen elizabeth ii as titular head of state. Introduction my association with ajayi crowther university dates back to 2007 when i was.
The constitution of the federation of nigeria 1960 pdf. The constitution of nigeria is the supreme law of the federal republic of nigeria. For the first time, there was a clear division of powers between the two levels of government i. The man that formulated the first constitution for nigeria was sir hugh clifford. The constitution retained some of the old structures but introduced some modifications thereto. Macpherson constitution of 1951, which made the three regions more autonomous. The act establishing the constitution was passed by the nigerian parliament, instead of the british parliament.
The constitution of the federation of nigeria arrangement of sections chapter i the federation and its territories section 1. Abstract this paper scrutinises against the background of the various experiences and attempts made at constitutional development in nigeria. All members of the national assembly are elected directly every four years. It came into effect on january 1, 1914 and has been amended a number of times including 1914, 1922, 1946.
Difference between 1963 and 1979 constitution in nigeria. History of nigerian constitutional development the jet lawyer. History of nigerian constitutional development the jet. It came up in 1944 under the leadership of the then governor sir arthur richards and it forms the very first constitution amendment in nigeria. British colonialism created nigeria, joining diverse peoples and regions in an artificial political entity. Mar 27, 2012 home columns tuesday platform origin of nigerian constitutional regionalism. A federal legislature consisting of 184 members, which were elected directly and independently of regional assemblies. The laws of the federation of nigeria were revised and consolidated pursuant to the revised edition laws of the federation of nigeria decree 1990.
The lyttleton constitution of 1954 main features, merits and. The northern peoples congress emerged as the largest party, winning 84 of the 184 seats. There would be a nigerian president as the constitutional head of state and commanderinchief of the armed forces to replace the queen of england. Constitution of the federal republic of nigeria, 1963.
The nigerian independence constitution of 1960 oldnaija. The purpose of this constitution all amendment was to. Pdf abstract this paper scrutinises against the background of the various experiences and attempts made at constitutional development in nigeria. Lyttleton constitution of 1954 features, merits and demerits. Merits and demerits of lyttleton constitution of 1954. How many revisions did the constitution of nigeria overcome. Colonial independent federal parliamentary country of the british commonwealth. Nigeria is a federation operating a federal constitution but in practice the country works as a unitary state, a fallout of the centralising tendencies that have come to characterise the governmental system. History of nigerian constitutional development the. The lyttleton constitution was enacted in 1954 and it established the federal principle and paved the way for independence. What urgent needs have caused the changes in the act of 1963. The federal and regional governments were allocated separate functions, thus putting every nigerian under two governments. Historical development of the nigerian constitution. However, when nigeria gained her independence on october 1 st 1960, a home made constitution known as the independence constitution of 1960 was adopted which disposed the colonial 1954 lyttleton constitution, although it retained some of its features.
The constitution, in nigerias situation, is the supreme law of the land which all acts of individuals and of parliament must not contravene. When nigeria was converted into a federation under the socalled lyttleton constitution of 1954, these three regions were the federating units, with the excolony of lagos becoming the federal capital territory. Colonial nigeria was the era in the history of nigeria when the region of west africa was ruled by great britain in from the midnineteenth century until 1960, when nigeria achieved independence. However, when nigeria gained her independence on october 1 st 1960, a home made constitution known as the independence constitution of 1960 was adopted which disposed the colonial 1954 lyttleton constitution, although it retained some of its features here are the main features of the nigerian independence constitution of 1960. The aim of this work is to trace the history of nigeria s constitution from the 1922 constitution to the 1979 constitution. The lyttleton constitution of 1954 is the fourth and the last of the preindependence constitutions of nigeria. Thus, in the colonial era, the constitution, where it existed, rather than being an instrument of empowerment was an instrument of domination. The postindependence generation is however made up of. The lyttleton constitution was enacted in 1954 and it established the federal principle and paved the way for nigerias independence in 1960 features of lyttleton constitution of 1954. The second phase of nigerian constitution under the british imperial. A presentation to students of the faculty of law, ajayi crowther university, oyo, 31 january 2017. Constitution, 1954 colonial thoroughgoing federal system, with specified powers to the central government, and residual powers to the three regions. Educational policy in nigeria hauwa imam educational policy in nigeria from the colonial era to the postindependence period hauwa imam1 abstract. Pdf abstract this paper scrutinises against the background of the.
It is the fundamental and organic law of a nation or state that establishes. The central legislature now known as explain the importance of the lyttleton. There is a widened western educational gap between the north and south of nigeria with the predominantly muslim areas of the north lagging behind due to some. The central legislature now known as explain the importance of the lyttleton constitution of 1954. What is the main difference between 1963 and 1979 constitution in nigeria.
Constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date 1. Explain the importance of the lyttleton constitution of 1954. That has been the journey so far of nigeria s constitution development, from the colonial era to the current 1999 edition, as amended. The federation of nigeria was a predecessor to modernday nigeria from 1954 to 1963. The constitutions also brought together the diverse elements of the. A constitution is the set of fundamental laws, established to govern a country. On the whole, looking at the supremacy of the constitution and governance in nigeria, it is instructive to note that there has been poor culture of constitutionalism in nigeria. Download free pdf copy of the 1999 nigerian constitution as amended.
However, the npc only won seats in the northern region. Nigerias federal legislative body, the national assembly, consists of two housesthe house of representatives and the senate. He was pressured to do this by the caseley hayfordled west african congress in 1922, which was the year the first constitution was constituted for nigeria and a host of other west african countries colonized by the british, namely gambia, sierra leone and gold coast. The nigerian educated elite formed the chunk of those that pressured him to institute the constitution amendment. The lyttleton constitution was enacted in 1954 and it established the federal principle and paved the way for nigeria s independence in 1960. Sir john macpherson was responsible for creating this constitution and its main highlight was the reported wide consultations with the different strata of the nigerian society before the constitution was created in 1951 also read. September, 1954, by the governor of nigeria to such extent as may, in his opinion. Chapter 1 representative democracy in nigeria introduction democracy is the form of government, in which the people of a country, state or local government area decide how they want to be governed. First, the constitution requires that international treaties be domesticated by local legislation and passed by the federal legislature before they attain legal force in the country. That has been the journey so far of nigerias constitution development, from the colonial era to the current 1999 edition, as amended. The 1954 lyttleton constitution was regarded as a milestone in the constitutional history of nigeria.
Get a fullyhyperlinked free pdf softcopy of the 1999 nigerian constitution, as amended. Chapter 1 representative democracy in nigeria introduction democracy is the form of government, in which the people of a country, state or. The nigerian constitution of 1951 is the supreme law of the federal republic of nigeria. In doing these as well as in their daytoday life, the. This research work xrayed federalism in nigeria as the only basis upon which nigeria can remain united despite its diversity and peculiar conditions in which the different tribal groups live in and proffers solutions to the challenges of the practice. International human rights face two major hurdles in nigeria. Colonial and postcolonial human rights violations in nigeria. Mar 09, 2020 constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date 1.
Sir john macpherson was responsible for creating this constitution and its main highlight was the reported wide consultations with the different strata of the nigerian society before the constitution was created in 1951. This constitution shall have the force of law throughout nigeria and, subject to the provisions of section 4 of this constitution, if any other law including the constitution of a region is inconsistent with this constitution, this constitution shall prevail and the other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. There is a widened western educational gap between the north and south of nigeria with the predominantly muslim areas of the north lagging behind due to some historical antecedents. The importance of a constitution in any given society cannot be overemphasized.
Constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date. The constitutions enacted during this period were those of 19 which came into effect on 1 january 1914, 1922, 1946, 1951 and 1954. At the ibadan 1950 conference, suggestions and decisions were generally made on the macpherson constitution of 1951. The preindependence generation is made up of 6 constitutional instruments, including. General elections were held in nigeria between october and december 1954. In 1948, sir john stuart macpherson succeeded sir authur richards as the governorgeneral of nigeria and soon after he resumed office, he began to draft a new constitution for the nigeria which is known as the macpherson constitution of 1951. Nigeria conslti1mon 19j,f the nigeria constltuiion. The laws in force as of the 31st day of january 1990 that is to say, the several enactments and subsidiary legislation were subsequently published in 471 chapter bound in 24 volumes. Independence constitution 1960 nigerias first constitution as a sovereign state was enacted by a british order in council so as to come into force immediately upon independence, on 1 october 1960. Her constitutional roles in nigeria were delegated to the governorgeneral of nigeria. It was an autonomous region until independence on 1 october 1960. Features of the republican constitution of 1963 include.
The feature of nigerian federalism could only be better understood by a reproduction of the definition of the concept federalism, professor nwabueze in his definition, defined federalism as an arrangement whereby governmental powers within a country are shared between a national, country wide government and a number of regional governments. British influence in the region began with the prohibition of slave trade to british subjects in 1807. Although the national council of nigeria and the cameroons won the most seats in the eastern and western regions, action group was the. The material different between the 1960 and 1963 constitution is that the latter 1963 constitution declared nigeria a republic and changed the designation of the governor general to president. For example, it was decided that nigeria should adopt a federal system of government and lagos should be autonomous. In 1954, the nigerian founding fathers opted for a federal system of government despite its inherent challenges in a pluralistic society. It came into force on 1st of october,1963 nigeria s third anniversary as an independent nation. The first constitution of this period was the macpherson constitution of 1951.520 741 1121 992 787 1246 97 503 147 245 247 310 1422 947 38 740 1415 998 391 785 821 94 1086 556 1402 302 1150 1256 868 2 82 1007 807 1118 660 1218 1197 1249 1466 678